Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat.
What is Obesity
Obesity isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It’s a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.
A disorder involving excessive body fat that increases the risk of health problems.
Obesity often results from taking in more calories than are burned by exercise and normal daily activities.
Obesity occurs when a person’s body mass index is 30 or greater. The main symptom is excessive body fat, which increases the risk of serious health problems.
The mainstay of treatment is lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise.
What causes in obesity?
Obesity is generally caused by eating too much and moving too little. If you consume high amounts of energy, particularly fat and sugars, but do not burn off the energy through exercise and physical activity, much of the surplus energy will be stored by the body as fat.
What is Morbid Obesity (Class III obesity)
Class III obesity, formerly known as morbid obesity, is a complex chronic disease in which a person has a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher and is experiencing obesity-related health conditions.
The BMI scale is not always accurate, so healthcare providers may use other tests and tools to assess obesity, such as measuring waist circumference.
Class III obesity can contribute to the development of several serious health conditions, such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. The good news is that class III obesity is manageable and treatable.
What is BMI (Body mass index)
Body mass index is a value derived from the mass and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is expressed in units of kg/m², resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.
Obesity is determined by your body mass index (BMI)
This score is calculated by finding your height and weight on the BMI chart. Morbid obesity is defined by a BMI of 40 or greater.
Understanding Body Mass Index
When you use a BMI chart to determine how healthy your weight is, you’ll find a corresponding number to your height and weight:
- If you have a BMI of less than 18.5, you are in the underweight range.
- If you have a BMI of 18.5 to less than 25, you are in the healthy weight range.
- If you have a BMI of 25.0 to less than 30, you are in the overweight range.
- If you have a BMI of 30.0 or higher, you are in the obesity range.
Risks of Morbid Obesity
- If you are morbidly obese, you may also experience health conditions like:
- Lower life expectancy – Being overweight leaves you at risk for not living as long as if you were in a healthy weight range.
- Type 2 diabetes – Obesity may lead to insulin resistance, creating inconsistent blood sugar levels that your body cannot maintain without the help of medication and diet changes.
- Hypertension and heart disease – Too much weight adds stress to your heart, and it cannot function properly to circulate oxygen through your body. In addition to high blood pressure, you may also be at risk for strokes and damage to your heart and kidneys.
- Osteoarthritis – Added weight causes your joints to wear down faster, especially around your hips and knees. Over time, chronic inflammation leads to permanent damage and decreased mobility.
- Problems breathing – Added fat in your neck may block your airways, leading to sleep apnea and respiratory problems.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease – Excess weight means that the valve at the top of your stomach cannot function to keep acid in your stomach. If acid rises from your esophagus, you may experience frequent heartburn.
- Depression – This condition can take a toll on your mental health. Add in the stress of multiple health conditions, and depression becomes a prevalent concern.
- Infertility – Weight affects your reproductive organs and hormone levels, making it difficult to conceive.
- Urinary stress incontinence – Pressure on your kidneys and bladder weaken your muscles, making it more difficult to hold your urine if you laugh, cough, or sneeze.
Treatment of Morbid Obesity
The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and stay at a healthy weight. This improves overall health and lowers the risk of developing complications related to obesity.
You may need to work with a team of health professionals — including a dietitian, behavioral counselor or an obesity specialist — to help you understand and make changes in your eating and activity habits.
The initial treatment goal is usually a modest weight loss — 5% to 10% of your total weight. That means that if you weigh 200 pounds (91 kilograms), you’d need to lose only about 10 to 20 pounds (4.5 to 9 kilograms) for your health to begin to improve. However, the more weight you lose, the greater the benefits.
All weight-loss programs require changes in your eating habits and increased physical activity. The treatment methods that are right for you depend on your obesity severity, your overall health and your willingness to participate in your weight-loss plan.
which surgical procedure treats morbid obesity by shortening the jejunum?
Roux-en-y gastric bypass
Gastric bypass, also called Roux-en-Y (roo-en-wy) gastric bypass, is a type of weight-loss surgery that involves creating a small pouch from the stomach and connecting the newly created pouch directly to the small intestine. After gastric bypass, swallowed food will go into this small pouch of stomach and then directly into the small intestine, thereby bypassing most of your stomach and the first section of your small intestine.
Gastric bypass is one of the most commonly performed types of bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass is done when diet and exercise haven’t worked or when you have serious health problems because of your weight.
Overweight & Obesity
Obesity is a common, serious, and costly chronic disease of adults and children. CDC’s Overweight and Obesity efforts focus on policy and environmental strategies to make healthy eating and active living accessible and affordable for everyone.
Obesity is a common, serious, and costly chronic disease of adults and children.
The conditions in which we live, work, and play—called social determinants of health—also matter. Child care and school environments, community design, access to healthy, affordable foods and beverages, and access to safe and convenient places for physical activity affect our ability to make healthy choices.
Obesity is serious because it is associated with poorer mental health outcomes and reduced quality of life. In the United States and worldwide, obesity is also associated with the leading causes of death, including deaths from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer.
For a patient to be considered clinically severe, or morbidly obese, he or she must have a body mass index or BMI of 35–39.9 with one or more severe health conditions or a BMI of 40 or greater.
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